JCEDMAlison, L., van den Heuvel, C., Waring, S., Power, N., Long, A., O’Hara, T. & Crego, J. (2012). Using immersive simulated learning environments (ISLEs) for researching critical incidents: A knowledge synthesis of the literature and experiences of studying high risk strategic and tactical decision making. Journal of Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making, 7: 255-272.

| Link to article in the Journal of Cognitive Engineering & Decision Making|

Abstract  This article provides an integration and synthesis of the strengths and weaknesses of utilizing simulation-based training environments for research. It provides information for researchers interested in exploring complex, dynamic, and high-stakes decision making in critical incidents. The article proposes that immersive simulated learning environments (ISLEs) are an effective naturalistic decision making tool for examining strategic and tactical multiteam decision making. Specifically, they are useful for researching environments whereby decision characteristics of anticipation, preparation, mitigation, adaptation, and coping are treated as interconnected elements. The article presents the simulation tool Hydra as an example of an ISLE by describing a worked example known as Operation Pandora. It demonstrates how the use of ISLEs can assist research on expert, high-stakes, and high-consequence critical incident decisions.