Pre-Publication Manuscript (PPM)

Pre-Publication Manuscript (PPM) FAQ

What is a PPM?

A Pre-Publication Manuscript (PPM) is the CiR&A approved version of a peer-reviewed published manuscript in its form prior to formatting and publication by the publishing journal. As such, this version is lower in quality, may contain some minor typographical errors, unformatted tables, and other inaccuracies and therefore should not be referenced, quoted, or assumed equivalent to the published manuscript.

To that end, we ask that you do not distribute these documents without our consent.

Why are we providing the PPM?

The Criminal Investigative Research and Analysis (CiR&A) Group is providing manuscripts in their unadulterated pre-publication (PPM) form purely to facilitate dissemination of the research to the wider (non-academic) community – many of whom do not have access to the journals the research is published in. However, we do not wish to undermine the significance of the published version.

We urge those interested in our research to obtain subscriptions to the peer-review journals we publish in to gain complete access to the corrected, formatted and high quality versions of the manuscripts and other researcher’s works.

How can I obtain a reprint?

Copyright permissions for most journals allow the author to make a set number of “reprints” (e.g., additional copies of the published article). As at least one of the CiR&A group is a contributing author on every paper on, we are happy to be able to provide “reprints” to any law-enforcement agency (at no charge for digital copies). If you are interested in obtaining a reprint please contact us at quoting the reference of the article you are interested in.


The CiR&A Group